Under Half a Decade of Influence

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One hoax used a real photo of Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi in a wheelchair and paired it with false suggestions that she had gone to South Korea for Botox injections, the people said. The Facebook page of the sniper, Mr. It gained a large following because of his descriptions of the day-to-day life of a soldier. The account was ultimately taken over by a military team to pump out propaganda, such as posts portraying Rohingya as terrorists, said two of the people.

Making use of the anniversary of Sept. To Muslim groups it spread a separate message that nationalist Buddhist monks were organizing anti-Muslim protests. Facebook said it had found evidence that the messages were being intentionally spread by inauthentic accounts and took some down at the time.

It did not investigate any link to the military at that point. The military tapped its rich history of psychological warfare that it developed during the decades when Myanmar was controlled by a military junta, which gave up power in One veteran of that era said classes on advanced psychological warfare from 15 years ago taught a golden rule for false news: If one quarter of the content is true, that helps make the rest of it believable.


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Some military personnel picked up techniques from Russia. Three people familiar with the situation said some officers had studied psychological warfare, hacking and other computer skills in Russia.

Some would give lectures to pass along the information when they returned, one person said. Soldiers stationed in Russia for training opened blogs and got into arguments with Burmese political exiles in places like Singapore. The campaign in Myanmar looked similar to online influence campaigns from Russia, said Myat Thu, a researcher who studies false news and propaganda on Facebook.

One technique involved fake accounts with few followers spewing venomous comments beneath posts and sharing misinformation posted by more popular accounts to help them spread rapidly. Human rights groups focused on the Facebook page called Opposite Eyes, which began as a blog about a decade ago and then leapt to the social network.

By then, the military was behind it, said two people. The blog provided a mix of military news, like hype about the purchase of new Russian fighter jets, and posts attacking ethnic minority groups like the Rohingya. At times, according to Moe Htet Nay, an activist who kept tabs on it, the ties of the Opposite Eyes Facebook page to the military spilled into the open.

A Decade Under The Influence Taking Back Sunday

Below the post, a senior officer wrote that the information was not public and should be taken down. It was. Moe Htet Nay, adding that other Facebook accounts reposted everything that the blog wrote, spreading its message further. Although Facebook has taken the page down, the hashtag Oppositeyes still brings up anti-Rohingya posts.

A Decade Under the Influence: US Films of the 1970s

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Drought, Desertification and Water Scarcity [ - 2.

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This note presents the UN-Water joint plan of action PoA for this thematic initiative and describes its elements. It also provides different examples of the ways in which coping with water scarcity can affect the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals MDGs. Human Development Report Chapter 4 [ - 1. The chapter discusses how perceptions of water security today are heavily influenced by ideas about scarcity, presents the different dimensions of water scarcity and different scenarios.

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While each organization must relate to water in its own capacity, the business case for the financial sector comes from acknowledging the potential risks associated with water scarcity and seeking possible opportunities for mitigating these risks. Making the Most of Scarcity.

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