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They showed that both Ashwagandha and Panax ginseng decreased the frequency and severity of stress-induced ulcers, reversed stress-induced immunosuppression, reversed stress-induced inhibition of male sexual behaviour and inhibited the effects of chronic stress on retention of learned tasks, but only the Withania extract increased peritoneal macrophage activity. Anti-oxidant activity: Root powder of W.
Plant extract protects myocardial cells from adverse effect of infarction or cardiac necrosis and stroke in rats which has molecular basis and high regeneration power as well Arya et al. Withania has showed antiulcer property and antioxidant activity also in rats along with improved calcification of bone in calcium-deficient ovariectomized rats Sisodia and Bhatnagar, ; Bhatnagar et al.
Withania somnifera has powerful antioxidants. It increases the levels of three natural antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase , catalase and glutathione peroxidise in the brain of rats Dhuley, Active principles of Withania somnifera root have antioxidant effects like anti-stress, cognition-facilitating, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging effects Bone, Anti-inflammatory effects: Ashwagandha acts as an effective anti-inflammatory agent and relives the symptoms of arthritis and variety of rheumatologic conditions.
Naturally, it has much higher steroidal content than that of hydrocortisone Anbalagan and Sadique, Begum and Sadique demonstrated that rats treated with powder of Withania somnifera root orally for 3 days, 1 h before injection of inflammatory agent produced anti-inflammatory responses comparable to that of hydrocortisone sodium succinate. Effect on cardiovascular system: In humans, assessment of the hypoglycemic as well as diuretic and hypocholesterolemic effects of Ashwagandha root revealed that the treatment of subjects suffering from type 2 diabetes and mildly hypercholesterolemic can be initiated for a period of 30 days with a powder extract which results in a decrease in the glucose level in blood, comparable to that of an oral hypoglycemic drug.
Significant increase in volume and sodium content in urine and decrease in cholesterol as well as triglycerides and low density lipoproteins in serum have also been observed Bhattacharya and Muruganandam, Hepatoprotective activity: Withaferin A has significant hepatoprotective effect in Ccl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats at a dose of 10 mg kg -1 b.
Rastogi and Mehrotra, ; Khare, Hypothyroid activity: An aqueous extract of dried Ashwaganda root was administered to mice daily for 20 days to test thyroid activity. Significant increase in serum T4 levels indicates the stimulating effect at the glandular level via its effect on cellular antioxidant systems. These results indicate ashwaganda is a useful treating agent for hypothyroidism Panda and Kar, Anti-hyperglycaemic effect: Transina is a commercial preparation, which contains active ingredient of Ashwaganda and other components.
It decreases streptozocin STZ induced hyperglycaemia in rats due to its pancreatic islet free radical scavenging activity Bhattacharya et al. Musculotropic activity: Alkaloids of Ashwaganda have muscle relaxant and antispasmodic effects against several spasmogens on bronchial, blood vascular, intestinal, uterine and tracheal muscles. This smooth muscle relaxant activity of the alkaloids was similar to that of papaverine which is a direct musculotropic agent Anonymous, Effect on sexual behaviour: Impairment in libido and sexual performance, sexual vigour as well as dysfunction in penile erection can be corrected by root extract of W.
The roots contain Fe, K, Mg and Ni which plays significant role in the diuretic, aphrodisiac activity and in the treatment of spermatopathia and seminal depletion. On cessation of treatment, these effects are partially reversible and are attributed to hyperprolactinemic, Gamma Amino Butyric Acid GABA , serotonergic or sedative activities of the extract instead of changes in levels of testosterone. Male sexual competence is detrimentally affected by roots of W.
GABA mimetic activities of W. Anti-cancer effects: The anti-cancer importance of the Ashwagandha plant has been well documented in a number of experimental studies and its extracts have potential use in cancer chemotherapy Nath et al. Literature reveals that Ashwagandha can be used as synergizer to support conventional chemo or radiation therapy due to its long term tumor growth inhibition property. Roots have been found to hamper the cellular growth and attachment of Chinese Hamster Ovary CHO carcinoma cells and thereby exerting the anti-tumor effect.
This plant has also been found effective against uterine fibroids, dermatosarcoma, prostate cancer in humans, urethane induced lung-adenoma in mice, neuroblastomas in humans, ascitic lymphoma, benzopyrene induced lung cancer in male Swiss Albino rat and leukaemia in humans Singh et al. Anti-carcinogenic effects are mainly on account of decreased expression of nuclear factor-kappa-B, suppression of intercellular Tumor Necrosis Factor TNF and potentiation of apoptotic signaling in cancerous cells of animals or cell lines Singh et al.
In HUVECS, Withaferin A inhibits proliferation of cell at significant doses that are lower than those that are required for cell line of tumor origin via cyclin D1 expression inhibition. This is evident from the increase in the level of poly-ubiquinated proteins.
Moreover, the finding that a potent anti-angiogenic activity is exerted by Withaferin A in vivo at lower doses than that required to induce anti-tumor activity in vivo highlights the use of this natural product obtained from W. A study regarding revealing the effect of W.
Genesis of papilloma of skin induced by 7, dimethylbennzanthracene is inhibited by W. In mice, however during the study this plant does not show any toxic effect apparently Padmavathi et al. Sometimes, Ashwagandha Indian ginseng may produce interference in the immunoassay of serum digoxin level measurement Dasgupta et al.
It potentially supports radiation therapy and reduces the side effects produced by chemotherapeutic agents such as cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel without interfering with the tumor-reducing actions of the drugs. Recent in vitro studies in India has shown that the extract of the plant disrupt the ability of cancer cells to reproduce and is a significant step in fighting cancer.
In addition it has been indicated by laboratory analysis that anti-angiogenic activity of ashwagandha extract against new blood vessels supporting unbridled growth. Oral administration ashwagandha extract effectively Inhibits the experimentally induced stomach cancers in laboratory animals.
It modulates the activity of cytotoxic lymphocytes CTL for reducing the tumour and cancerous growth. Augmentation of the Natural Killer NK cell activity reduces the tumor growth and incidences and increases serum T3 and T4 in mice Panda and Kar, Compared to doxorubicin, Ashwagandha showed better efficacy in arresting growth of breast and colon cancer cell line Jayaprakasam et al.
Extracts of Ashwagandha also possess potent antioxidant and detoxifying properties Rasool and Varalakshmi, Withaferin A stoutly exerts I kappa B kinase beta hyperphosphorylation for inhibition of its kinase action thereby causing death of cancerous cells Kaileh et al. The radiosensitizing effect of W. Volume doubling time the time required for a quantity to double in size and growth delay in dose dependent manner has been observed by treating mm 3 tumors with intraperitonial injection of mg kg -1 of Withaferin A.
On the other hand, there has been a significant enhancement in tumor response due to gamma irradiation locally followed by injection of Withaferin A at the rate of mg kg Such study has shown that the plant extract Withaferin A is effective mostly when injected intraperitonially 1 h prior to irradiation and thereby Withaferin A significantly enhance the radiation response of melanoma Uma et al. Significant reduction in cyclophosphamide induced leucopenia has been observed due to administration of W. When W. Alpha-esterase positive cells increase in number in the bone marrow of animals treated with cyclophosphamide due to administration of Ashwagandha because of stem cell proliferation Kumar et al.
As per studies so far, toxicity induced by cadmium has not been reported to be regulated by any plant. But lipid peroxidation based results indicate that cadmium induced toxicity can be reduced by Ashwagandha, thereby indicating the potential of this plant to regulate metal induced toxicity Panda et al. Tissue venom like hyaluronidase destroys the integrity of extracellular matrix thereby helping to spread toxin.
Ashwagandha Uses, Benefits & Dosage - buymuhopmatch.tk Herbal Database
It is an interesting finding that W. It is a scientific approach to use the Ashwagandha plant extract externally as an antidote to victims of snake bite in rural India. This has got implications in novel therapeutic reagent development as well as for treating snake evenomations along with implication in snake biology Machiah et al. Anti-aging activities: Double-blind clinical trial was conducted to test the anti-aging properties of Ashwagandha in a group of healthy males, ageing about years were given at a dosage of 3 g daily for one year.
The volunteers showed significant improvement in hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hair melanin, seated stature, improvement in sexual performance, decrease in serum cholesterol and nail calcium was preserved Bone, ; Ilayperuma et al. Role against neurodegenerative disorders: Ashwagandha can be used as neuro-regenerative agent to treat Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and other neurodegenerative diseases at any stage of the disease as it can significantly reverse the neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss, along with GABA mediated anticonvulsant effect, GABA mimetic effect and promoting formation of dendrites due to therapeutic activity of glycowithanolides withaferin-A and sitoindosides VII-X present in the roots of Ashwagandha Schliebs et al.
Ashwagandha enhances regeneration of the neurons along with reconstruction of synapse thereby acting as memory enhancer. Alkaloids from the roots of Ashwagandha showed prolonged hypotensive, bradycardiac and respiratory stimulant activities in dogs. Hypotensive effect was mainly due to autonomic ganglion blocking action and was augmented by the depressant action on higher cerebral centres. In experimental animals, total alkaloids produced a taming and a mild depressant effect like tranquillizer-sedative type on the CNS Rastogi and Mehrotra, Systemic administration of Ashwagandha root extract led to slightly enhanced acetylcholinesterase ACHE activity in the lateral septum and globus pallidus.
Ashwagandha root extract affects mainly in the cortical and basal forebrain cholinergic signal transduction cascade. It increases cortical muscarinic acetylcholine receptor capacity leads to cognition-enhancing and memory-improving effects in animals and humans Schliebs et al.
It also showed reduction in severity of motor seizures induced by electrical stimulation in right basilateral amygdaloid nuclear complex through bipolar electrodes. Role of Ashwagandha in development of drug tolerance and dependence: Drug addiction has become a major health problem worldwide and is a very costly affair to be managed. In drug addict individuals, tolerance as well as withdrawal signs are observed due to chronic treatment with benzodiazepine as well as ethanol or opioids that can be blocked by BRA Mentat which contains W. The morphine induced analgesic effect is significantly attenuated when the Ashwagandha plant extract is administered repeatedly for a period of 9 days.
As per assessment by naloxone precipitation, withdrawal signs of development of dependence to opiate viz. Studies have revealed that there is no dependence liability of the plant even upon cessation abruptly which have got clinical implications without production of long-term tolerance and withdrawal effect Kulkarni and Sharma, ; Kulkarni and Ninan, ; Kest et al.
Biotechnological techniques as a stand-pillar in upliftment of herbal therapy: Medicinal plants are broadly used to deal with an array of health problems. The major impediments in the study of therapeutic herbal plants consist of erroneous identification and less yield of active principles such as medicinally important withanolides in case of Ashwagandha. Commercial preparations: Ashwagandha is the principal component of many polyherbal preparations viz. Immu-Plus R has been reported to stimulate blastogenic capacity of T and B cells and increases antibody titer in dogs. Polyherbal preparations like Ashwagandharist act as a nervine tonic and Himalaya ashwagandha is a monoherbal extract used for management of stress.
Stresswin is used for reduction of anxiety, strain as well as stress.
- Withinia 1 To 3;
- A Review on Pharmacological Profile of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha).?
Stresscom is a monoherbal extract that relieves anxiety. Himalaya massage oil is a polyherbal preparation used for relaxation of body along with relief from stress. It is a good immunopotentiating agent when used along with vaccines, like in pups it improves immune stimulation when used in conjunction with parvovirus and rabies virus vaccines Chauhan, Similar beneficial immunomodulatory effects have been observed in poultry birds while using with infectious bursal disease and Newcastle disease vaccines Dhote et al.
Not only this but in few fishes also such as Labeo rohita , famous as Indian major carp, 'ImmuPlus' has helped in increasing immunity and providing enhanced resistance against the diseases at different growth stages of fish life Kumari et al. Immunomodulatory effects of Immu R have been reflected in modest improvements in conditions of HIV patients Singh et al.
The uses of botanical medicines continue to grow with the expansion of modern medicine. The revered herb Ashwagandha potentiates the immune functions, enhances the longevity and facilitates the restoration of homeostasis by reducing the stress. Ashwagandha is a potent stress reliever and antidepressant with the property to strengthen immunity against cold, flu and other common infections. Root powder is useful in treatment of acute rheumatoid arthritis. The roots are used as potent diuretic and aphrodisiac, increases sexual performance and help to maintain vigour and vitality.
The plant is also a good anti-inflammatory agent and is useful in graft-vs-host reaction. Ashwagandha extract supports antioxidant and immunomodulant activities.
Withaferin A has powerful antitumor effects. It possesses metastatic and angiogenetic properties of decresing order. Roots and leaves of Withania exhibit marked antibacterial activity against S. These facts indicate that W.
However the aforesaid benefits are documented in the literature but still multi-disciplinary evaluation is required with systematic approach before large scale commercialization of this miraculous herb. Proper caution should be taken while using this plant along with drugs that have anectodal effect importantly barbiturates. The dose regimen should be given equal importance as in large dosage the plant extract causes gastrointestinal upset as well as diarrhea and vomition and may also have abortifacient effect so better to avoid during pregnancy.
Working hand-in-hand with oncologists as experienced natural medicine practitioners can effectively increase the therapeutic efficiency of Ashwagandha as well as decrease the side effects of W. In order to determine whether W. Because of its wide pharmacological activities, Ashwagandha is considered as an important component of various polyherbal preparations. Thus the plant has got immense practical applicability in biomedicine as well as veterinary medicine focusing its potent role in the maintenance of sound health.
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